How does Alan lee ( illustrator of lord of the rings) Know if jrr tolkien envisioned it that way,.?
Because Tolkien gave immense detail when describing aspects of his novel. For example, if I remember correctly, he used at least 3 pages describing the layout of Minas Tirith. So the work we end up seeing from good artists like Alan Lee and John Howe, although maybe not exactly the way Tolkien imagined, is certainly not from from it.